6 From 7 Species of Sea Turtle in Indonesian Waters

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Did you know? from 7 species of sea turtles in the world 6 of theam are in Indonesian waters. They are Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coracea), Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Flatback turtle (Natator depressus) and Olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).

Indonesia is one of the signatories of the United Nations convention on biodiversity and on of seven countries with mega-biodiversity that has been identified as concentrations of world biodiversity.

As a measure of the country's biodiversity richness, there are 6,000 species of flora and fauna, which are utilized as daily foods, medicines, cosmetics, colorings, etc. In addition, there are 47 types of natural ecosystem. While some of the wealth of genetic diversity has been use for the improvement of plant and animal breeding, there is still a vast amount that is yet to be discovered and identified.

Indonesia is ranked as top class in the world for species richness, fist for mammals (515 species, 51endemic), swallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44endemic), and palm trees (447 species, 47endemic); fifth for birds (1,519 species, 28endemic); sixth for amphibians (270 species, 37endemic); and seventh for flowering plants (29,375 species, 59endemic).

Most of the biodiversity riches are in natural forest areas, particularly those in conservation areas. Indonesia 's conservation areas cover a total area of 23.05 million hectares, consisting of nature preserves (nature reserves and wildlife reserves), nature conservation areas (national parks, nature Recreation Park , and grand forest park ) and game reserves.

Of these conservation areas, national parks provide the best opportunity to see at first hand the diversity, the uniqueness, and beauty of various endemic, endangered and protected flora and fauna. They are also an excellent place in with to observe natural phenomena and stunning landscapes.

Conservation areas, and in particular national parks, have very important and strategic role in biodiversity conservation. The areas designated as such must therefore be representative of all the ecosystem types that exist in the seven biogeographically regions of Indonesia .

Not only do national park possess distinct characteristics, either on the land or in the waters, they also have multiple functions, namely the protection of life support systems, the preservation of the species diversity of plants and animals and their ecosystem, and the sustainable use of these plants, animals and ecosystem as well.

National parks are managed by means of a zoning system and they are used for the sake of research, science and technology, education, promoting breeding, the preservation of cultures and recreation and ecotourism. The zoning system forms a national park design that is base on the park's function and designation in line with existing conditions, potential and progress. In general, the zoning of each national park includes a core zone, wilderness zone, utilization zone and or other zones stipulated by the Minister of Forestry in accordance with biodiversity conservation needs.

The Core Zone is a area inside a national park with the purpose of providing absolute protection, and any changes therein made by human activity are forbidden, except for those related to research, observation, protection and security.

The Wilderness Zone (land) or Marin Zone is an area inside a national park, on land or in the sea, which functions a buffer for the core zone. Activities can only be performed there in accordance with those of the core zone, and visitors may only enter the zone for certain recreation activities. Certain management activities can take place in the wilderness or marine zone, such as the development of plant and animal populations and habitats, and building paths, observation towers, and guard posts.

The Utilization Zone is a area within a national park which is designated for visitors and recreation activities, and facilities for either visitors or park staff. Various facilities can be constructed in side this zone such as accommodation for visitors (camp site, guest houses, roads and parking areas, an information centre, etc.) and park management facilities (office, research station, etc.). There used for the facilities must not exceed 10of the total area of the Utilization Zone.

Some national parks have earned an international reputation as a Natural World Heritage Site ( Ujung Kulon , Komodo and Lorentz National Park ), Biosphere Reserves ( Gunung Gede-Pangrango , Siberut, Gunung Leuser , Tanjung Puting , Lore Lindu, and Komodo National Park ) and International Wetland Sites (Berbak and Danau Sentarum National Park ).

Several of the plants and animals that inhabit the national park have become local and national symbols or emblems. These included bangkai flower, rafflesia flower, orchid, bamboo, black tree, cempaka, komodo gragon, Javan rhinoceros, orangutan, Bali starling, maleo fowl, babirusa, golden cat, sun bear, helmeted hornbill, Helena bird wing, and Javan hawk eagle.

In addition, some of national park boasts unique natural features: Danau Kelimutu National Park , with its three lakes of different color (East Nusa Tenggara), Taka Bonerate National Park with third largest atoll in the world (South Sulawesi), and Lorentz National Park (Papua) with its glacier, one of only three tropical area glaciers in the world.

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